Haynes International’s alloys have been used to solve corrosion problems in the Chemical Process Industry (CPI) for over 75 years. The principal trademark, HASTELLOY® alloy, is highly recognizable all over the world for its quality and high-performance. In the 1980’s and 1990’s, a variety of products were invented and introduced to solve critical industrial problems involving both low-temperature and high-temperature corrosion-resistant applications.
These alloys include: C-22®, G-30®, C-2000®, ULTIMET®, G-35®, B-3®, HR-120®, HR-160®, and 230® alloys. Since the turn of the century, additional alloys, such as C-22HS®, HYBRID-BC1®, and HR-235® were invented, introduced, and designed to solve for specific customer problems. Throughout this time period, high quality HASTELLOY® C-276 and C-4 alloys were also offered to the CPI.
These alloys are used in reactors, agitators, heat exchangers, reboilers, columns, trays, packing, pipework, couplings, valves, pumps, filters, dryers, and thermal oxidizers. They provide improved performance over stainless steels, super stainless steels, and duplex stainless steels in low-temperature and high-temperature service.
HASTELLOY® B-3® exhibits extremely high resistance to pure hydrochloric, hydrobromic, and sulfuric acids. Furthermore, it has greatly improved structural stability compared with previous B-type alloys, leading to fewer concerns during welding, fabrication, and service.
HASTELLOY® C-4 alloy is the most (microstructurally) stable of the widely used nickel-chromium-molybdenum materials, which are well known for their resistance to many aggressive chemicals, in particular hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, and chlorides. This stability means that the alloy can be welded without fear of sensitization, i.e. the nucleation and growth of deleterious, second phase precipitates in the grain boundaries of the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ).
HASTELLOY® C-22® alloy is one of the well-known and well-proven nickel-chromium-molybdenum materials, the chief attributes of which are resistance to both oxidizing and non-oxidizing chemicals, and protection from pitting, crevice attack, and stress corrosion cracking. Its high chromium content provides much higher resistance to oxidizing media than the family standard, C-276 alloy, and imparts exceptional resistance to chloride-induced pitting, an insidious and unpredictable form of attack, to which the stainless steels are prone.
HASTELLOY® C-22HS® alloy
C-22HS® is a versatile nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy with excellent resistance to both oxidizing and reducing acids and which can be heat treated to obtain very high strength. Used in the oil & gas industry in bar, billet, tube and pipe product forms for applications that require very high strength and superior corrosion resistance. This alloy, especially suited for high-temperature, high-pressure wells, is capable of being produced at significantly higher strength levels than other nickel base alloys. It is qualified to NACE MRO175/ISO 15156 Level VII environment with 5 g/l elemental sulfur to 401ºF (205ºC) and modified NACE Level VII, 25% NaCl+1000 psi (7000 kPa) CO2 + 1000 psi (7000 kPa) H2S at 550ºF (288ºC) the highest level in the specification. The maximum hardness and yield strength covered is HRc43 and 205 ksi.
HASTELLOY® C-276 alloy
HASTELLOY® C-276 alloy is the first wrought, nickel-chromium-molybdenum material to alleviate concerns over welding (by virtue of extremely low carbon and silicon contents). As such, it was widely accepted in the chemical process and associated industries, and now has a 50-year-old track record of proven performance in a vast number of corrosive chemicals.
HASTELLOY® C-2000® alloy is unique among the versatile nickel-chromium-molybdenum materials in having a deliberate copper addition. This provides greatly enhanced resistance to sulfuric acid. It also has a high chromium content, to maximize its resistance to oxidizing chemicals and process streams contaminated with ferric ions and dissolved oxygen.
HASTELLOY® G-30® alloy is a nickel-chromium-iron material highly resistant to “wet process” phosphoric acid (P2O5). P2O5 is one of the most important industrial chemicals, being the primary source of phosphorus for agrichemical fertilizers. G-30® alloy is also moderately resistant to chloride-induced localized attack. Furthermore, G-30® alloy is less susceptible to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking than the stainless steels.
HASTELLOY® G-35® alloy was developed to resist “fertilizer-grade” phosphoric acid (P2O5), which is used in the production of fertilizers. Tests in real-world solutions indicate that G-35® alloy is far superior to other metallic materials in this acid. It was also designed to resist localized attack in the presence of chlorides, since this can be a problem beneath deposits in evaporators used to concentrate “fertilizer-grade” phosphoric acid. Furthermore, G-35® alloy is much less susceptible to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking than the stainless steels and nickel-chromium-iron alloys traditionally used in “fertilizer-grade” phosphoric acid.
HYBRID-BC1® alloy possesses much higher resistance to hydrochloric, hydrobromic, and sulfuric acids than the nickel-chromium-molybdenum (C-type) alloys, and can tolerate the presence of oxidizing species. The alloy also exhibits extremely high resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion.
ULTIMET® alloy provides many of the corrosion characteristics of the nickel-based HASTELLOY® G-type alloys and many of the wear characteristics of the cobalt-based STELLITE® alloys, in a single, highly weldable material. It excels under conditions conducive to galling and cavitation erosion.
HAYNES® 230® alloy
HAYNES® 230® alloy is a nickel-chromium-tungsten-molybdenum alloy that offers the best combination of high- temperature strength, resistance to oxidizing environments up to 2100°F (1149°C) for prolonged exposures, excellent long-term thermal stability, and fabricability of any major high-temperature alloy. It is used for combustion cans, transition ducts, flame holders, thermocouple sheaths, and other important gas turbine components.
HAYNES® HR-120® alloy
HAYNES® HR-120® alloy offers very good creep strength to 1800°F (980°C), together with good resistance to several industrial environments (e.g. excellent carburization and very good sulfidation and oxidation resistance). This economical alloy has found use in large frame engine shrouds, as well as use in heat treating fixture and industrial heating applications as an upgrade from 330 alloy, 800H alloy and stainless steels.
HAYNES® HR-160® alloy
HAYNES® HR-160® alloy has outstanding resistance to sulfidation and other high-temperature aggressive environments. Used in waste incineration, boiler, high-temperature reaction vessel and rotary calciner applications.
HAYNES® HR-235® alloy
HAYNES® HR-235® is a high-chromium, copper-bearing nickel alloy that has excellent resistance to metal dusting in carbonaceous high-temperature environments. Potential uses include applications in petrochemical production and syngas plants. Similar to other nickel-based corrosion resistant alloys, the alloy is readily fabricated and welded.