Since 1912, Haynes International has concentrated on the production of special alloys. The original product, cobalt-based metal-cutting tools, provided a natural entry into the high-temperature alloy field at mid-century with the advent of commercial jet engines. Cast blades and vanes of HAYNES® cobalt-base alloys 21, 23, and 31 contributed to the success of early jet engines.
HASTELLOY® X alloy, a Haynes International developed nickel-base alloy, has become the standard by which other high-temperature alloys are measured. It was one of the company's most successful products and remains an industry workhorse. Newer alloys, such as HAYNES® 188 alloy and the alloys listed below, are following in its footsteps. The most significant aspect of 188 alloy is the use of lanthanum, a rare earth metal. Very small additions of the rare earth metal provide an order-of-magnitude increase in the oxidation resistance of both nickel- and cobalt-based alloys. Yttrium, another rare earth metal, has had a similar enhancement effect on alloys. Similar rare earth additions are used in HAYNES® 230® alloy, a recently developed nickel-chromium-tungsten-molybdenum alloy, that combines excellent high-temperature strength, outstanding resistance to oxidizing environments up to 2100°F (1150°C), premier resistance to nitriding environments, and excellent long-term thermal stability.
Today, industrial heating applications for HAYNES® alloys are becoming a very significant part of the overall business which also includes aircraft/aerospace and the world-renowned HASTELLOY® corrosion-resistant alloys for the chemical process industry.
*Also known as Columbium
Because they resist oxidation as well as sagging, warping and cracking, retorts of HAYNES® high-temperature alloys often outlast competitive materials many times over. Alloy retorts have been used with great success in sintering, carburizing, nitriding, controlled-atmosphere heat-treating, brazing and chemical processing.
For example, retorts made of 230® alloy have the strength and environmental resistance to withstand severe service conditions even up to 2100°F (1150°C). Because the alloy retains its ductility for long periods (see page 9) when it finally does sag or warp, it can be readily straightened or weld-repaired.
HAYNES® 230® alloy in particular, offers many design advantages because of its higher rupture strength. You can either achieve greater strength in retort by using the same gage thickness as with conventional alloys, or, design with a thinner gage for a component with less overall weight and better heat-transfer properties.
HR-120® alloy retort used to carburize large gears for ships at a commercial heat-treat operation. The prior material of construction was Type 330 stainless steel.
Repair costs and associated downtime led to the selection of 230® alloy for construction of this pit-furnace retort operating with a hydrogen atmosphere up to 2100°F (1150°C).
The horizontal electrically fired 230® alloy retort is reported to last 3 to 4 times as the material it replaced.
Major requirements for containment materials in thermal processing include (1) avoidance of catastrophic failures with subsequent loss or damage of expensive components, (2) reduced life-cycle costs by minimizing weld repair and (3) increased operating time and capacity through reduced maintenance.
556® alloy provided all three of these requirements for a major aircraft producer. They had experienced excessive cracking necessitating frequent weld repair of 316 stainless steel salt pot boxes. Cracking was believed to be due to cycling of the heavy baskets between 1600 and 600°F (870 and 315°C) and corrosion from the molten salt. In this application, 556® alloy has handily outperformed the stainless steel. Maintenance costs are down and reliability is increased.
HASTELLOY® X alloy baskets, also shown on this page had given years’ service carburizing automotive transmission gears when the photo was taken. Baskets made of a competitive alloy had to be replaced on an average of once a year. Even though X alloy cost roughly twice as much as the competitive alloy, it became cost effective the first year of service.
556® alloy baskets used in aircraft company molten-salt heat-treating.
Corrugated boxes for carburizing furnaces operating at 1750°F (955°C). After 14 months of intensive field testing, HR-120® alloy was selected over RA 333 alloy.
Cast basket of 230® alloy exhibits properties approaching that of wrought material.
Alloy X carburizing basket.
Wire annealing fixture of 230® alloy reduces thermal mass and cycle times after replacing massive carbon-steel “stub” used previously.
Fans made of HAYNES alloys last for periods up to ten years circulating gases for carburizing, cyaniding, nitriding and heat-treating operations. For most applications, first choice is 556® alloy because of its environmental resistance, coupled with excellent strength and fabricability. The alloy has the best combination of resistance to carburization and oxidation for high-speed carburizing furnace fan applications up to 2000°F (1095°C).
Squirrel-cage fan fabricated from 556® alloy.
Fan fabricated from 556® alloy sheet.
Sagging is the main cause of failure in most radiant tube applications. Long-term exposure to temperatures approaching 2000°F (1095°C) can reduce most commercial heat-treat alloys to scrap in a relatively short time. HAYNES® alloys, because of their creep resistance coupled with oxidation resistance, are ideal for tubes in the really hot spots of industrial furnaces.
Fabricated radiant tubes of 230® alloy in 1740°F (950°C) carburizing furnace.
The same properties that make HAYNES® alloys ideal for previously described industrial heating operations (high-temperature strength, oxidation resistance and fabricability) also come to play for a great many other components. These include mufflers and calciners and strand annealing tubes. The strand annealing tubes operate at temperatures between 2150 and 2250°F (1175 and 1205°C) during the heat-treating of medical grade wire. Tubes made of a competitive heat-resistant alloy sagged in two to three months, scratching the wire. HAYNES® 230® alloy tubes lasted from four to five times as long.
556® alloy calciner shell requiring over 17,000 pounds of 1/2” plate.
The 43-inch (1.1m) diameter 214® alloy cylinder with 1/2” (12.7mm) thickness rotates at 2000°F (1150°C) for clean drying of alumina.
Stand annealing tubes of 230® alloy used to heat-treat medical grade wire.
Furnace operators guard against costly downtime and repair by using anchors and studs of HAYNES® high-temperature alloys.
The lower 214® alloy thermocouple tube shown was still good after nine months’ service at 2300°F (1260°C). The other tube, 600 alloy, failed in a month.
Because of its resistance to molten zinc, 556® alloy is ideal for use in galvanizing baths. This galvanizing tube was as good as the day it was installed after six months’ service.
It is estimated that well over half of the rejects in the ceramic and semiconductor industries are caused by contamination. A large part of this contamination can be traced to spalling and flaking of oxides forming on processing equipment at high temperatures.
Decorating kiln for fine bone china containing 214® alloy belt.
This mesh, formed from 2mm wire of 214® alloy is a part of a continuous belt that conveys bone china through a decorating kiln. The alloy has not only survived many years of service because of its oxidation resistance, but has been a decided “plus” value in uniform color quality of the end product.
Firing tray for hybrid circuit components is made of expanded sheets of 214® alloy to protect final product from contamination
214® alloy sagger tray used in treatment of chemicals at very high temperatures because of cleanliness and resistance to hostile environment.
HAYNES® high-temperature alloys are developments of the company's world-renowned laboratories located in Kokomo, Indiana. Alloys, such as MULTIMET® alloy, HASTELLOY® X alloy and HAYNES® 188 alloy have been leaders in the aerospace and aircraft engine field during the entire latter half of the twentieth century. The data on the following pages document the unsurpassed high-temperature properties of our latest alloys.
The accompanying charts demonstrate the outstanding heat-resistance of HR-120® alloy, 214® alloy, 230® alloy, 556® alloy and X alloy. Individual booklets are available to give you a complete properties profile.
() Estimated *Manufacturer’s laboratory or published data
() Estimate *Manufacturer’s laboratory or published data **Limited Data
RA330 is a registered trademark id Rolled Alloys, Inc. 253MA is a registered trademark of Avesta Jemverks Aktiebolag.