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HAYNES® Alloys

Oxidation Resistance

HAYNES® 214® alloy provides resistance to oxidation at temperatures of 1750°F (955°C) and above that is virtually unmatched by any other wrought heat-resistant alloy. It can be used for long-term continuous exposure to combustion gases or air at temperatures up to 2300°F (1260°C), and, for shorter term exposures, it can be used at even higher temperatures. Useful short-term oxidation resistance has even been demonstrated at temperatures as high as 2400°F (1315°C).

Comparative Oxidation Resistance in Flowing Air*

Alloy 1800°F (980°C) 2000°F (1095°C) 2100°F (1150°C) 2200°F (1205°C)
Average Metal Loss** Average Metal Affected*** Average Metal Loss** Average Metal Affected*** Average Metal Loss** Average Metal Affected*** Average Metal Loss** Average Metal Affected***
mils μm mils μm mils μm mils μm mils μm mils μm mils μm mils μm
214® 0.1 3 0.3 8 0.1 3 0.2 5 0.1 3 0.5 13 0.1 3 0.7 18
230® 0.2 5 1.5 38 0.5 13 3.3 84 1.2 30 4.4 112 4.7 119 8.3 211
X 0.2 5 1.5 38 1.3 33 4.4 112 3.6 91 6.1 115 - - - -
601 0.4 10 1.7 43 1.3 33 3.8 97 2.8 71 6.5 165 4.4 112 7.5 191
HR-120® 0.4 10 2.1 53 1 25 4.4 112 7.9 201 10.1 257 21.7 551 25.4 645
556® 0.4 10 2.3 58 1.5 38 6.9 175 10.4 264 17.5 445 - - - -
600 0.3 8 2.4 61 0.9 23 3.3 84 2.8 71 4.8 122 5.1 130 8.4 213
RA-330 0.3 8 3.0 76 0.8 20 6.7 170 - - - - - - - -
800HT 0.5 13 4.1 104 7.6 193 11.6 295 11 279 15.0 381 - - - -
HR-160® 0.7 18 5.5 140 1.7 43 10.3 262 2.5 64 16.0 406 13.5 345 62.9 1598
304 SS 5.5 140 8.1 206 NA NA >19.6 >498 NA NA >19.5 >495 - - - -
316 SS 12.3 312 14.2 361 NA NA >17.5 >445 NA NA >17.5 >445 - - - -
446 SS - - - - 13 330 14.4 366 NA NA >21.5 >546 - - - -

*Flowing air at a velocity of 7.0 ft/min (213.4 cm/min) past the samples.  Samples cycled to room temperature once per week.
** Metal loss was calculated from final and initial metal thicknesses; i.e. ML = (OMT – FMT) /2.
***Average Metal Affected is sum of Metal Loss and Average Internal Penetration.

Amount of metal affected for high‐temperature sheet (0.060 ‐0.125”)
alloys exposed for 360 days (8,640‐h) in flowing air.*

Alloy 1800°F (980°C) 2000°F (1095°C) 2100°F (1150°C) 2200°F (1205°C)
Metal Loss** Average Metal Affected*** Metal Loss** Average Metal Affected*** Metal Loss** Average Metal Affected*** Metal Loss** Average Metal Affected***
mils μm mils μm mils μm mils μm mils μm mils μm mils μm mils μm
214® 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.4 36
230® 0.1 3 2.5 64 3.4 86 11 279 28.5 724 34.4 874 39 991 64 1626
X 0.2 5 2.8 71 17.1 434 26.2 665 51.5 1308 55.4 1407 >129.0 >3277 >129.0 >3277
HR‐120® 0.5 13 3.3 84 18.1 460 23.2 589 33.6 853 44 1118 >132.0 >3353 >132.0 >3353
556® 0.5 13 6.2 157 15 381 24.1 612 - - - - - - - -
HR-160® 1.7 43 13.7 348 7.2 183 30.8 782 12 305 45.6 1158 13.5 345 62.9 1598

*Flowing air at a velocity of 7.0 ft/min (213.4 cm/min) past the samples.  Samples cycled to room temperature once per month.
** Metal loss was calculated from final and initial metal thicknesses; i.e. ML = (OMT – FMT) /2
***Average Metal Affected is sum of Metal Loss and Average Internal Penetration

Metallographic Technique used for Evaluating Environmental Tests

214 environmental tests

Comparative Oxidation in Flowing Air 2100°F (1150°C)

Microstructures shown are for coupons exposed for 1008 hours at 2100°F (1150°C) in air flowing at 7.0 feet/minute (213.4 cm/minute) past the samples. Samples were descaled by cathodically charging the coupons while they were immersed in a molten salt solution. The black area shown at the top of each picture represents actual metal loss due to oxidation. The data clearly show HAYNES® 214® alloy is only slightly affected by the exposure, while other nickel-chromium alloys, such as alloys 600 and 601, and ironnickel chromium alloys, such as RA330® alloy, all exhibit significantly more oxidation damage. Of particular importance is the almost total absence of internal attack for the 214 alloy. This contrasts markedly with the very substantial amount of internal attack evidenced by the alloy 601 and RA330 alloy tests coupons. The nature of this internal attack, as illustrated by the photomicrographs, is common for alloys containing 1-2% aluminum or silicon. Such levels of these elements do promote chromium oxide scale adherence, but do not afford improved resistance to oxide penetration below the scale.

2141

HAYNES® 214® alloy
Average Metal Affected
= 0.5 mils (13 µm)

2142

Alloy 600
Average Metal Affected
=4.8 mils (122µm)

2143

Alloy 601
Average Metal Affected
=6.5 mils (71 µm)

2144

RA330 alloy
Average Metal Affected
=8.7 mils (221 µm)

Comparative Burner Rig Oxidation Resistance

Alloy 1800°F (980°C)/1000 Hours 2000°F (1095°C)/500 Hours 2100°F (1150°C)/200 Hours
Metal Loss* Average Metal Affected** Metal Loss* Average Metal Affected** Metal Loss* Average Metal Affected**
mils µm mils µm mils µm mils µm mils µm mils µm
214® 1.5 38 1.8 46 1.2 30 1.5 38 2.0 51 2.1 53
230® 2.8 71 5.6 142 7.1 180 9.9 251 6.4 163 13.1 333
556® 4.1 104 6.7 170 9.9 251 12.1 307 11.5 292 14 356
X 4.3 109 7.3 185 11.6 295 14.0 356 13.9 353 15.9 404
HR-160® 5.4 137 11.9 302 12.5 318 18.1 460 8.7 221 15.5 394
601 5.7 145 Through thickness - - - - 16.3 414 Through thickness
HR-120® 6.3 160 8.3 211 - - - - - - - -
RA330 8.7 221 10.5 267 15.4 391 17.9 455 11.5 292 13.0 330
310 SS 16.0 406 18.3 465 - - - - Consumed - -
800H 22.9 582 Through thickness Consumed after 300 h - - Consumed - -
800HT 23.3 592 Through thickness Consumed after 365 h - - Consumed - -
304 SS Consumed Consumed - - - - - - - -

* Metal loss was calculated from final and initial metal thicknesses; i.e. ML = (OMT – FMT) /2
** Average Metal Affected is sum of Metal Loss and Average Internal Penetration

Oxidation Test Paramerters

Burner rig oxidation tests were conducted by exposing, in a rotating holder, samples 0.375 inch x 2.5 inches x thickness (9.5mm x 64mm x thickness) to the products of combustion of fuel oil (2 parts No. 1 and 1 part No. 2) burned at a ratio of air to fuel of about 50:1. (Gas velocity was about 0.3 mach). Samples were automatically removed from the gas stream every 30 minutes and fan cooled to less than 500°F (260°C) and then reinserted into the flame tunnel.

Comparative Burner Rig Oxidation Resistance at 1800°F (980°C)/1000 Hours

(Black areas of micros indicates actual metal loss)
2145

HAYNES® 214® alloy
Average Metal Affected
= 1.8 mils (45.7 µm)

Alloy 601
Average Metal Affected
> 23 mils (> 584 µm)

RA330 alloy
Average Metal Affected
=10.5 mils (267 µm)

Alloy 800H
Average Metal Affected
> 38 mils (> 965 µm)

Comparative Burner Rig Oxidation Resistance at 2000°F (1095°C)/500 Hours

2146

HAYNES® 214® alloy
Average Metal Affected
= 1.2 mils (30 µm)

Alloy 601
Average Metal Affected
> 23 mils (> 584 µm)

RA330 alloy
Average Metal Affected
=17.9 mils (455 µm)

Alloy 800H
Average Metal Affected
> 38 mils (> 965 µm)

Water Vapor

1200°F (650°C)
Alloy 1008h (cycled weekly) in air + 5%H2O 1008h (cycled weekly)in air + 10%H2O
Metal Loss* Average Metal Affected** Metal Loss* Average Metal Affected**
mils µm mils µm mils µm mils µm
214® 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.08 2
230® 0 0 0.05 2 0.01 0 0.2 5
625 0 0 0.07 2 0.01 0 0.26 7
X 0 0 0.18 4 0.01 0 0.13 3
HR‐120® 0 0 0.23 6 0.02 0 0.55 14
347SS 0.02 0 0.28 7 0.03 1 0.34 9
253MA 0.05 1 0.5 13 0.08 2 1.12 29
1400°F (760°C)
Alloy 1008h (cycled weekly) in air + 5%H2O 1008h (cycled weekly) in air + 10%H2O 1008h (cycled weekly) in air + 20%H2O
Metal Loss* Average Metal Affected** Metal Loss* Average Metal Affected** Metal Loss* Average Metal Affected**
mils µm mils µm mils µm mils µm mils µm mils µm
214® 0.01 1 0.05 1 0.01 0 0.16 4 0.01 0 0.01 0
230® 0.03 1 0.24 6 0.03 1 0.21 6 0.04 1 0.14 4
625 0.02 1 0.13 3 0.04 1 0.27 7 0.05 1 0.25 6
HR‐120® 0.04 1 0.24 6 0.04 1 0.29 7 0.08 2 0.68 17
X 0.04 1 0.32 8 0.04 1 0.3 8 0.06 2 0.36 9
617 - - - - 0.05 1 0.45 11 - - - -
253MA 0.04 1 0.42 11 0.08 2 0.68 17 0.19 5 0.99 25
347SS 0.04 1 0.46 12 0.18 5 0.88 22 0.78 20 1.98 50
1600°F (870°C)
Alloy 1008h (cycled weekly) in air + 5%H2O 1008h (cycled weekly) in air + 10%H2O 1008h (cycled weekly) in air + 20%H2O
Metal Loss* Average Metal Affected** Metal Loss* Average Metal Affected** Metal Loss* Average Metal Affected**
mils µm mils µm mils µm mils µm mils µm mils µm
214® 0.05 1 0.21 5 0.05 1 0.26 7 0.04 1 0.12 3
625 0.11 3 0.41 11 0.11 3 0.5 12 0.11 3 0.6 15
X 0.09 2 0.38 10 0.03 1 0.5 13 0.13 3 1.17 30
230® 0.06 1 0.32 8 0.07 2 0.53 13 0.08 2 1.11 28
HR‐120® 0.08 2 0.54 14 0.09 2 0.68 17 0.16 4 1.06 27
617 - - - - 0.08 2 0.88 22 - - - -
347SS 0.65 16 1.48 38 0.86 22 1.48 38 7.31 186 9.34 237
253MA 0.12 3 0.43 11 0.66 17 1.59 41 0.64 16 1.67 42
1800°F (980°C)
Alloy 1008h (cycled weekly) in air + 5%H2O 1008h (cycled weekly) in air + 10%H2O 1008h (cycled weekly) in air + 20%H2O
Metal Loss* Average Metal Affected** Metal Loss* Average Metal Affected** Metal Loss* Average Metal Affected**
mils µm mils µm mils µm mils µm mils µm mils µm
214® 0.04 1 0.24 6 0.05 1 0.55 14 0.04 1 0.64 16
188 0.13 3 1.43 36 0.14 4 1.64 42 0.18 5 1.48 38
230® 0.17 4 1.47 37 0.18 5 1.38 35 0.19 5 1.59 40
625 0.32 8 1.62 41 0.16 4 1.46 37 0.36 9 1.66 42
X 0.27 7 1.77 45 0.26 7 1.66 42 0.27 7 1.77 45
556® - - - - - - - - 0.35 9 1.85 47
617 0.3 8 2 51 0.15 4 1.65 42 0.39 10 1.99 50
HR‐120® 0.34 9 1.94 49 0.36 9 1.66 42 0.38 10 2.08 53
800HT - - - - - - - - 2.47 63 5.07 129
HR-160® - - - - - - - - 0.77 20 5.57 141

* Metal loss was calculated from final and initial metal thicknesses; i.e. ML = (OMT – FMT) /2
** Average Metal Affected is sum of Metal Loss and Average Internal Penetration

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