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HAYNES® Alloys


HASTELLOY® X alloy is readily welded by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW), Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW), and resistance welding techniques. Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) is not recommended as this process is characterized by high heat input to the base metal and slow cooling of the weld.  These factors can increase weld restraint and promote cracking.

Base Metal Preparation

The welding surface and adjacent regions should be thoroughly cleaned with an appropriate solvent prior to any welding operation.   All greases, oils, cutting oils, crayon marks, machining solutions, corrosion products, paint, scale, dye penetrant solutions, and other foreign matter should be completely removed.  It is preferable, but not necessary, that the alloy be in the solution- annealed condition when welded.

Filler Metal Selection

HASTELLOY® X filler wire (AWS A5.14, ERNiCrMo-2) is recommended for joining X alloy by Gas Tungsten Arc or Gas Metal Arc welding.  Coated electrodes of X alloy are also available for Shielded Metal Arc welding in non-ASME code construction.  For dissimilar metal joining of X  alloy to nickel-, cobalt-, or iron- base materials, X filler wire, HAYNES® 556® alloy (AWS A5.9 ER3556, AMS 5831) , HASTELLOY® S alloy (AMS 5838) or HASTELLOY® W alloy (AMS 5786, 5787) welding products may all be considered, depending upon the particular case. Please click here or the Haynes Welding SmartGuide for more information.

Preheating, Interpass Temperatures, and Post- Weld Heat Treatment

Preheat is not required. Preheat is generally specified as room temperature (typical shop conditions).   Interpass temperature should be maintained below 200°F (93°C). Auxiliary cooling methods may be used between weld passes, as needed, providing that such methods do not introduce contaminants.  Post-weld heat treatment is not generally required for X alloy.  For further information, please click here.

Nominal Welding Parameters

Details for GTAW, GMAW and SMAW welding are given here. Nominal welding parameters are provided as a guide for performing typical operations and are based upon welding conditions used in our laboratories.

Room Temperature Hardness of Welded Sheet

Weld Method Test Area HRB
Shielded Metal Arc
(covered electrodes)
Weld Area 92
Heat-Affected Zone 93
Base Metal 91
Gas Tungsten Arc
Weld Area 89
Heat-Affected Zone 93
Base Metal 91
Gas Metal Arc
Weld Area 90
Heat-Affected Zone 93
Base Metal 91

Note: Sheet was solution heat-treated prior to welding. Hardness was determined at room temperature in the as-welded condition.
HRB = Hardness Rockwell “B”.

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